Wednesday, May 30, 2007

There are a number of directions a person can take in VLSI, and they are all closely related to each other. Together, these developments are going to make possible the visions of embedded systems and ubiquitous computing.

1. Reconfigurable computing:
Reconfigurable computing is a very interesting and pretty recent development in microelectronics. It involves fabricating circuits that can be reprogrammed on the fly! And no, we are not talking about microcontrollers running with EEPROM inside. Reconfigurable computing involves specially fabricated devices called FPGA's, that when programmed act just like normal electronic circuits. They are so designed that by changing or "reprogramming" the connections between numerous sub modules, the FPGA's can be made to behave like any circuit we wish.

This fantastic ability to create modifiable circuits again opens up new possibilities in microelectronics. Consider for example, microprocessors which are partly reconfigurable. We know that running complex programs can benefit greatly if support was built into the hardware itself. We could have a microprocessor that could optimise itself for every task that it tackled! Or then consider a system that is too big to implement on hardware that may be limited by cost, or other constraints. If we use a reconfigurable platform, we could design the system so that parts of it are mapped onto the same hardware, at different times. One could think of many such applications, not the least of which is prototyping - using an FPGA to try out a new design before it is actually fabricated. This can drastically reduce development cycles, and also save some money that would have been spent in fabricating prototype IC's

2. Software Engineers taking over hardware design?:
ASIC's provide the path to creating miniature devices that can do a lot of diverse functions. But with the impending boom in this kind of technology, what we need is a large number of people who can design these IC's. This is where we realise that we cross the threshold between a chip designer and a systems designer at a higher level. Does a person designing a chip really need to know every minute detail of the IC manufacturing process? Can there be tools that allow a designer to simply create design specifications that get translated into hardware specifications?

The solution to this is rather simple - hardware compilers or silicon compilers as they are called. We know by now, that there exist languages like VHDL which can be used to specify the design of a chip. What if we had a compiler that converts a high level language into a VHDL specification? The potential of this technology is tremendous - in simple manner, we can convert all the software programmers into hardware designers!

3. The need for hardware compilers:
Before we go further let us look at why we need this kind of technology, that can convert high-level languages into hardware definitions. We see a set of needs which actually lead from one to the other in a series.

A. Rapid development cycles.
The traditional method of designing hardware is a long and winding process, going through many stages with special effort spent in design verification at every stage. This means that the time from drawing board to market, is very long. This proves to be rather undesirable in case of large expanding market, with many competitors trying to grab a share. We need alternatives to cut down on this time so that new ideas reach the market faster, where the first person to get in normally gains a large advantage.

B. Large number of designers.
With embedded systems becoming more and more popular, there is a need for a large number of chip designers, who can churn out chips designed for specific applications. Its impractical to think of training so many people in the intricacies of VLSI design.

C. Specialized training.
A person who wishes to design ASIC's will require extensive training in the field of VLSI design. But we cannot possibly expect to find a large number of people who would wish to undergo such training. Also, the process of training these people will itself entail large investments in time and money. This means there has to be system a which can abstract out all the details of VLSI, and which allows the user to think in simple system-level terms.

There are quite a few tools available for using high-level languages in circuit design. But this area has started showing fruits only recently. For example, there is a language called Handel-C, that looks just like good old C. But it has some special extensions that make it usable for defining circuits. A program written in Handel-C, can be represented block-by-block by hardware equivalents. And in doing all this, the compiler takes care of all low-level issues like clock-frequency, layout, etc. The biggest selling point is that the user does not really have to learn anything new, except for the few extensions made to C, so that it may be conveniently used for circuit design.

Another quite different language, that is still under development, is Lava. This is based on an esoteric branch of computer science, called "functional programming". FP itself is pretty old, and is radically different from the normal way we write programs. This is because it assumes parallel execution as a part of its structure - its not based on the normal idea of "sequence of instructions". This parallel nature is something very suitable for hardware since the logic circuits are is inherently parallel in nature. Preliminary studies have shown that Lava can actually create better circuits than VHDL itself, since it affords a high-level view of the system, without losing sight of low-level features.

As mentioned above, the main job functions in this industry are Design, Product, Test, Applications and Process Engineering. For the sake of clarity, product engineering and test engineering functions are described separately, but it is most efficient to combine these two functions into one engineer because of the interdependency and overlap of skills, tasks and job functions.

1. Design Engineer:
Takes specifications, defines architecture, does circuit design, runs simulations, supervises layout, tapes out the chip to the foundry, evaluates the prototype once the chip comes back from the fab.

2. Product Engineer:
Gets involved in the project during the design phase, ensures manufacturability, develops characterization plan, assembly guidelines, develops quality and reliability plan, evaluates the chip with the design engineer, evaluates the chip through characterization, reliability qualification and manufacturing yield point of view (statistical data analysis). He is responsible for production release and is therefore regarded as a team leader on the project. Post production, he is responsible for customer returns, failure analysis, and corrective actions including design changes.

3. Test Engineer:
Develops test plan for the chip based on specifications and data sheet, creates characterization and production program for the bench test or the ATE (Automatic Test Equipment), designs test board hardware, correlates ATE results with the bench results to validate silicon to compare with simulation results. He works closely with the product engineer to ensure smooth release to production and post release support.

4. Applications Engineer:
Defines new products from system point of view at the customer’s end, based on marketing input. His mission is to ensure the chip works in the system designed or used by the customers, and complies with appropriate standards (such as Ethernet, SONET, WiFi etc.). He is responsible for all customer technical support, firmware development, evaluation boards, data sheets and all product documentation such as application notes, trade shows, magazine articles, evaluation reports, software drives and so on.

5. Process Engineer:
This is a highly specialized function which involves new wafer process development, device modeling, and lots of research and development projects. There are no quick rewards on this job! If you are R&D oriented, highly trained in semiconductor device physics area, do not mind wearing bunny suits (the clean room uniforms used in all fabs), willing to experiment, this job is for you.

6. Packaging Engineer:
This is another highly specialized job function. He develops precision packaging technology, new package designs for the chips, does the characterization of new packages, and does electrical modeling of the new designs.

7. CAD Engineer:
This is an engineering function that supports the design engineering function. He is responsible for acquiring, maintaining or developing all CAD tools used by a design engineer. Most companies buy commercially available CAD tools for schematic capture, simulation, synthesis, test vector generation, layout, parametric extraction, power estimation, and timing closure; but in several cases, these tools need some type of customization. A CAD engineer needs to be highly skilled in the use of these tools, be able to write software routines to automate as many functions as possible and have a clear understanding of the entire design flow.

Tuesday, May 29, 2007

VLSI E-Books



Great Source For Semiconductors Basics.

Due to Space Constraints some more E-books are added at the above link. 

Other links where you can get some text books:

Great Website with lots of books but the sad part is it is always very slow :(

Another Wiki Book which i use.

The best i have ever used but i think it is down from some days :(

Great source of information for Electronics books.

Links to lots of Ebooks for any field. from engineering, physics, science to literature and novels etc...

Best of all I always try to use this website though.

This is Good one.

Good one too Especially lots of books on Software

These guys have used almost same concept as Youtube guys but the difference it this is for books.

Great site though. Only drawback is it will ask you to create a Username with atleast 24 letters which is tough to remember.

You can get links for lot of books which are present in, etc.. good one.